Skip to main content


Table 2 Protein target descriptors exhibiting a significant difference in distribution between binarized toxic set versus nontoxic set

From: Leveraging heterogeneous data from GHS toxicity annotations, molecular and protein target descriptors and Tox21 assay readouts to predict and rationalise acute toxicity

Uniprot Protein Class Cohen’s d p value Relevant function [associated pathologies] Refs.
P00352 Retinal dehydrogenase 1 Oxidoreductase 0.48 2.0 × 10−17 Metabolism processes and oxidation–reduction process [oxidative stress] [47]
P51449 Nuclear receptor ROR gamma Nuclear hormone receptor 0.37 1.4 × 10−13 Cytokine-mediated signaling pathways [apoptosis] [49]
Q16236 Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 Transcription factor 0.36 5.5 × 10−13 Regulation of cellular redox conditions [oxidative stress] [48]
Q8IUX4 DNA dC → dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3F Hydrolase 0.33 1.5 × 10−7 DNA mutators participating in the innate immune system [inducing mutations > apoptosis/necrosis] [50]
P11473 (pidgin) Vitamin D3 receptor Nuclear hormone receptor 0.28 1.0 × 10−8 Ca2+ signalling [negative regulation of cell proliferation] [51]
  1. Enrichment effect size was quantified via Cohen’s d, and the top 5 targets with the largest effect size indicating more association with the toxic set are shown. Only enrichments with a p value below the Bonferroni-corrected threshold equivalent to α = 0.05 were considered. The full table is given in Additional file 11: Table S3. The relevance of these targets to toxicity is explored in the text